2018 Disability Status Report: Texas

Table of Contents

The 2018 Annual Disability Status Report

The Annual Disability Status Reports provide policy makers, disability advocates, reporters, and the public with a summary of the most recent demographic and economic statistics on the non-institutionalized population with disabilities. They contain information on the population size and disability prevalence for various demographic subpopulations, as well as statistics related to employment, earnings, household income, veterans' service-connected disability and health insurance. Comparisons are made to people without disabilities and across disability types. Disability Status Reports and other statistics are available for the United States overall, each state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico at www.disabilitystatistics.org.

The Status Reports primarily look at the working-age population because the employment gap between people with and without disabilities is a major focus of government programs and advocacy efforts. Employment is also a key factor in the social integration and economic self-sufficiency of working-age people with disabilities.

The information in this report is based on data from the US Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) - a survey sent each year to a random sample of over 3.5 million households. For more information see the Census Bureau's ACS website http://www.census.gov/acs/www/ and our Guide to Disability Statistics from the American Community Survey (2008 Forward): http://disabilitystatistics.org/sources.cfm.

The estimates in these reports are based on responses from a sample of the population and may differ from actual population values because of sampling variability and other factors. Differences observed between the estimates for two or more groups may not be statistically significant.

http://www.census.gov/people/disability/methodology/acs.html

 

Suggested Citation

Erickson, W. Lee, C., & von Schrader, S. (2021). 2018 Disability Status Report: Texas. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Yang Tan Institute on Employment and Disability (YTI).

We would like to thank Sara VanLooy, Jason Criss, and Joe Williams for their assistance with editing and production of this document.

ACS Disability Questions

There is no single accepted definition of disability. Different definitions and disability questions may identify different populations with disabilities and result in larger or smaller estimates.

Below are the six questions used in the ACS to identify persons with disabilities. Note that the Census Bureau refers to each of the individual types as "difficulty" while in this report the term "disability" is used.

  • Hearing Disability (asked of all ages):
    • Is this person deaf or does he/she have serious difficulty hearing?
  • Visual Disability (asked of all ages):
    • Is this person blind or does he/she have serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses?
  • Cognitive Disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older):
    • Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions?
  • Ambulatory Disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older):
    • Does this person have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs?
  • Self-Care Disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older):
    • Does this person have difficulty dressing or bathing?
  • Independent Living Disability (asked of persons ages 15 or older):
    • Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping?

Note:

  • The "Any Disability" category used in this report includes persons who reported one or more of the individual disability types.
  • Respondents could report more than one disability type.
  • Some disability questions were not asked of children.
  • A separate set of survey questions identify veterans with service-connected disabilities. Based on a separate set of survey questions, this report includes estimates related to veterans' service-connected disability
    (see page 51).

 

Notes

Spanish Language Reports: Spanish language versions of the Annual Disability Status Reports for the US, all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and Washington D.C. can be downloaded at the same location as the English Status Reports. The Spanish translation was made possible through funding from the Northeast ADA Center and NIDILRR.

Puerto Rico: A Puerto Rico Disability Status Report, based on the parallel 2018 Puerto Rico Community Survey (PRCS), is available again this year in English as well as Spanish. However, please note that the Puerto Rico sample is not included in any U.S. population estimates included in these reports.

Group Quarters: In 2006, the ACS began surveying the group quarters population. We include the non-institutionalized group quarters population, but due to small state level sample sizes exclude the institutionalized group quarters population (see glossary) in the Disability Status Reports.

Margin of Error (MOE): As in previous years' reports we provide the 90% MOE to better illustrate sampling variability. See the glossary entry for more information on this topic.

Glossary: As in previous years, we provide a comprehensive glossary at the back of this report defining the terms used in the Disability Status Report (see glossary).

Note: According to the Census Bureau, estimates based on the ACS Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) file such as those included in this report may differ slightly from the ACS summary tables produced by the Census Bureau, because they are subject to additional sampling error and further data processing operations. Please see http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/faq.cfm#Q4 for further information.

Texas Summary

These statistics indicate the social and economic status of non-institutionalized people with disabilities in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS).

Age: In 2018, the prevalence of disability in TX was:

  • 11.3 percent for persons of all ages
  • 0.9 percent for persons ages 4 and under
  • 5.2 percent for persons ages 5 to 15
  • 5.8 percent for persons ages 16 to 20
  • 9.7 percent for persons ages 21 to 64
  • 26.6 percent for persons ages 65 to 74
  • 51.3 percent for persons ages 75+

Disability Type: In 2018, the prevalence of the six disability types among persons of all ages in TX was:

  • 2.5% reported a Visual Disability
  • 3.3% reported a Hearing Disability
  • 6.1% reported an Ambulatory Disability
  • 4.6% reported a Cognitive Disability
  • 2.5% reported a Self-Care Disability
  • 5.0% reported an Independent Living Disability

Gender: In 2018, 11.3 percent of females of all ages and 11.3 percent of males of all ages in TX reported a disability.

Hispanic/Latino: In 2018, the prevalence of disability among persons of all ages of Hispanic or Latino origin in TX was 9.4 percent.

Race: In TX in 2018, the prevalence of disability for working-age people (ages 21 to 64) was:

  • 9.8 percent among Whites
  • 12.4 percent among Black / African Americans
  • 3.2 percent among Asians
  • 16.7 percent among Native Americans
  • 8.9 percent among persons of some other race(s)

Employment: In 2018, the employment rate of working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in TX was 40.8 percent.

Looking for Work: In TX in 2018, the percentage actively looking for work among people with disabilities who were not working was 7.2 percent.

Full-Time/Full-Year Employment: In TX in 2018, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities working full-time/full-year was 28.3 percent.

Annual Earnings: In 2018, the median annual earnings of working-age people with disabilities working full-time/full-year in TX was $40,500.

Annual Household Income: In TX in 2018, the median annual income of households with working-age people with disabilities was $49,300.

Poverty: In TX in 2018, the poverty rate of working-age people with disabilities was 23.5 percent.

Supplemental Security Income: In 2018, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities receiving SSI payments in TX was 17.6 percent.

Educational Attainment: In 2018, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities in TX:

  • with only a high school diploma or equivalent was 32.7 percent
  • with only some college or an associate degree was 31.9 percent
  • with a bachelor's degree or more was 15.0 percent.

Veterans Service-Connected Disability: In 2018, the percentage of working-age civilian veterans with a VA determined Service-Connected Disability was 32.9 percent in TX.

Health Insurance Coverage: In 2018 in TX, 81.6 percent of working-age people with disabilities had health insurance.

Prevalence: Ages 21 - 64

This summary lists percentages by state of non-institutionalized working-age (ages 21 to 64) people with disabilities using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). The US disability prevalence rate for this population was 10.4%

Location 2018 (%) Location 2018 (%)
Alabama 14.9 Montana 11.2
Alaska 10.8 Nebraska 9.5
Arizona 10.9 Nevada 10.4
Arkansas 16.1 New Hampshire 10.7
California 7.9 New Jersey 7.6
Colorado 8.8 New Mexico 12.8
Connecticut 8.5 New York 8.9
Delaware 10.5 North Carolina 11.2
District of Columbia 10.0 North Dakota 8.5
Florida 10.1 Ohio 12.2
Georgia 10.6 Oklahoma 14.3
Hawaii 7.7 Oregon 11.9
Idaho 12.0 Pennsylvania 11.6
Illinois 8.8 Puerto Rico 18.2
Indiana 12.0 Rhode Island 11.9
Iowa 9.6 South Carolina 12.6
Kansas 12.1 South Dakota 10.2
Kentucky 16.2 Tennessee 14.0
Louisiana 13.7 Texas 9.7
Maine 13.5 Utah 8.9
Maryland 9.4 Vermont 11.5
Massachusetts 9.1 Virginia 9.4
Michigan 12.5 Washington 10.4
Minnesota 8.7 West Virginia 17.3
Mississippi 15.8 Wisconsin 9.2
Missouri 12.8 Wyoming 10.9

Employment: Ages 21 - 64

This summary lists employment rates by state of non-institutionalized working-age (ages 21 to 64) people with disabilities using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). The employment rate in the US for this population was 37.8% for people with disabilities and 80.0% for people without disabilities.

Location People with Disabilities 2018 People without Disabilities 2018 Location People with Disabilities 2018 People without Disabilities 2018
Alabama 28.9 75.6 Montana 49.0 81.9
Alaska 45.9 79.0 Nebraska 49.5 85.9
Arizona 38.5 77.5 Nevada 42.5 78.2
Arkansas 30.6 78.6 New Hampshire 43.5 84.4
California 37.1 78.0 New Jersey 37.7 81.8
Colorado 48.3 82.9 New Mexico 33.4 74.2
Connecticut 39.3 81.9 New York 34.2 79.5
Delaware 37.7 80.0 North Carolina 35.3 80.0
District of Columbia 38.3 82.6 North Dakota 57.3 85.8
Florida 35.5 78.2 Ohio 38.7 81.4
Georgia 36.8 79.3 Oklahoma 38.7 79.2
Hawaii 44.3 81.8 Oregon 40.9 80.1
Idaho 43.3 79.5 Pennsylvania 38.1 81.6
Illinois 38.0 80.7 Puerto Rico 23.5 58.5
Indiana 36.9 81.6 Rhode Island 34.8 82.1
Iowa 45.9 85.5 South Carolina 33.8 79.3
Kansas 45.2 84.2 South Dakota 52.4 84.4
Kentucky 31.6 78.0 Tennessee 34.5 79.0
Louisiana 34.2 76.2 Texas 40.8 78.8
Maine 34.1 84.1 Utah 47.6 81.0
Maryland 44.4 83.2 Vermont 41.3 85.4
Massachusetts 38.0 82.7 Virginia 41.2 82.2
Michigan 35.7 79.2 Washington 41.2 80.6
Minnesota 48.5 85.5 West Virginia 28.9 73.7
Mississippi 27.7 75.5 Wisconsin 41.5 84.6
Missouri 36.2 81.7 Wyoming 49.9 83.4

Prevalence

All Ages

Introduction

This section addresses the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people of all ages in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of people with a disability of all ages in TX was 11.3 percent.
  • In other words, in 2018, 3,214,000 of the 28,329,500 individuals of all ages in TX reported one or more disabilities.
  • In TX in 2018, among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest prevalence rate was for "Ambulatory Disability," 6.1 percent. The lowest prevalence rate was for "Visual Disability," 2.5 percent.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people of all ages in Texas in 2018*

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 11.3 0.14 3,214,000 38,710 28,329,500 261,322
Visual 2.5 0.07 703,300 18,980 28,329,500 261,322
Hearing 3.3 0.08 925,400 21,680 28,329,500 261,322
Ambulatory 6.1 0.11 1,612,700 28,270 26,322,800 246,123
Cognitive 4.6 0.09 1,221,900 24,780 26,322,800 246,123
Self-Care 2.5 0.07 657,400 18,370 26,322,800 246,123
Independent Living 5.0 0.11 1,100,000 23,570 22,162,200 211,380

* Note: Children under the age of five were only asked about Vision and Hearing disabilities. The Independent Living disability question was only asked of persons aged 16 years old and older.

Prevalence

Ages 4 years and under

Introduction

This section focuses on the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized children ages 4 and under in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Only the two sensory disability questions were asked of this population. For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of children with a visual and/or hearing disability ages 0 to 4 in TX was 0.9 percent.
  • In other words, in 2018, 17,400 of the 2,006,700 children ages 0 to 4 in TX reported one or more disabilities.
  • In TX in 2018, 0.6 percent reported a visual disability
  • In TX in 2018, 0.6 percent reported a hearing disability

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 4 and under in Texas in 2018

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 0.9 3.29 17,400 3,020 2,006,700 15,199
Visual 0.6 3.29 11,100 2,410 2,006,700 15,199
Hearing 0.6 3.29 12,600 2,570 2,006,700 15,199

Prevalence

Ages 5 to 15 years

Introduction

This section focuses on the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized children ages 5 to 15 in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS)*. For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of children with a disability ages 5 to 15 in TX was 5.2 percent.
  • In other words, in 2018, 237,400 of the 4,570,600 individuals ages 5 to 15 in TX reported one or more disabilities.
  • In TX in 2018, among the five types of disabilities* identified in the ACS, the highest prevalence rate was for "Cognitive Disability," 4.1 percent. The lowest prevalence rate was for "Hearing Disability," 0.5 percent.

Prevalence of disability* among non-institutionalized people ages 5 to 15 in Texas in 2018

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 5.2 0.24 237,400 11,120 4,570,600 38,417
Visual 0.9 3.29 40,200 4,590 4,570,600 38,417
Hearing 0.5 3.29 23,100 3,480 4,570,600 38,417
Ambulatory 0.6 3.29 28,600 3,880 4,570,600 38,417
Cognitive 4.1 0.21 188,100 9,910 4,570,600 38,417
Self-Care 1.0 3.29 44,700 4,840 4,570,600 38,417

* Note: The "Independent Living Disability" question was not asked of children ages 15 years and younger.

Prevalence

Ages 16 to 20 years

Introduction

This section focuses on the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 16 to 20 in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of people with a disability ages 16 to 20 in TX was 5.8 percent.
  • In other words, in 2018, 117,900 of the 2,047,100 individuals ages 16 to 20 in TX reported one or more disabilities.
  • In TX in 2018, among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest prevalence rate was for "Cognitive Disability," 3.8 percent. The lowest prevalence rate was for "Hearing Disability," 0.6 percent.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 16 to 20 in Texas in 2018

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 5.8 0.37 117,900 7,850 2,047,100 17,772
Visual 1.2 3.29 24,000 3,540 2,047,100 17,772
Hearing 0.6 3.29 12,800 2,600 2,047,100 17,772
Ambulatory 0.7 3.29 14,400 2,750 2,047,100 17,772
Cognitive 3.8 0.31 78,500 6,410 2,047,100 17,772
Self-Care 0.7 3.29 13,600 2,670 2,047,100 17,772
Independent Living 2.2 0.23 44,900 4,850 2,047,100 17,772

Prevalence

Ages 21 to 64 years

Introduction

This section focuses on the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of working age people (ages 21 to 64) with a disability in TX was 9.7 percent.
  • In other words, in 2018, 1,569,300 of the 16,194,400 individuals ages 21 to 64 in TX reported one or more disabilities.
  • In TX in 2018, among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest prevalence rate was for "Ambulatory Disability," 4.6 percent. The lowest prevalence rate was "Self-Care Disability," 1.8 percent.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 21 to 64 in Texas in 2018

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 9.7 0.17 1,569,300 27,910 16,194,400 146,089
Visual 2.2 0.08 364,000 13,740 16,194,400 146,089
Hearing 2.1 0.08 347,000 13,420 16,194,400 146,089
Ambulatory 4.6 0.12 737,300 19,420 16,194,400 146,089
Cognitive 3.8 0.11 615,200 17,780 16,194,400 146,089
Self-Care 1.8 3.29 290,700 12,290 16,194,400 146,089
Independent Living 3.3 0.10 530,300 16,530 16,194,400 146,089

Prevalence

Ages 65 to 74 years

Introduction

This section explores the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 65 to 74 in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of people with a disability ages 65 to 74 in TX was 26.6 percent.
  • In other words, in 2018, 572,300 of the 2,147,700 individuals ages 65 to 74 in TX reported one or more disabilities.
  • In TX in 2018, among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest prevalence rate was for "Ambulatory Disability," 16.5 percent. The lowest prevalence rate was for "Self-Care Disability," 4.9 percent.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 65 to 74 in Texas in 2018

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 26.6 0.69 572,300 17,160 2,147,700 26,643
Visual 5.3 0.35 114,700 7,740 2,147,700 26,643
Hearing 9.8 0.46 210,500 10,480 2,147,700 26,643
Ambulatory 16.5 0.58 355,400 13,580 2,147,700 26,643
Cognitive 5.9 0.37 126,200 8,120 2,147,700 26,643
Self-Care 4.9 0.34 104,400 7,390 2,147,700 26,643
Independent Living 7.9 0.42 169,200 9,400 2,147,700 26,643

Prevalence

Ages 75 and Older

Introduction

This section focuses on the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 75 and older in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of people with a disability ages 75 and older in TX was 51.3 percent.
  • In other words, in 2018, 699,700 of the 1,363,000 individuals ages 75 and older in TX reported one or more disabilities.
  • In TX in 2018, among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest prevalence rate was for "Ambulatory Disability," 35.0 percent. The lowest prevalence rate was for "Visual Disability," 11.0 percent.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 75 and older in Texas in 2018

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 51.3 0.98 699,700 18,930 1,363,000 17,202
Visual 11.0 0.61 149,400 8,830 1,363,000 17,202
Hearing 23.4 0.83 319,200 12,870 1,363,000 17,202
Ambulatory 35.0 0.94 476,900 15,690 1,363,000 17,202
Cognitive 15.7 0.71 213,900 10,560 1,363,000 17,202
Self-Care 15.0 0.70 204,000 10,310 1,363,000 17,202
Independent Living 25.4 0.85 346,700 13,410 1,363,000 17,202

Prevalence

Gender and Age

Introduction

This section examines the prevalence of disability among people by gender and age group in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS)*. For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In TX in 2018, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of males with a disability of all ages was 11.3 percent.
  • In other words, in 2018, 1,585,100 of the 13,970,600 males of all ages in TX reported one or more disabilities.
  • In TX in 2018, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of females with a disability of all ages was 11.3 percent.
  • In other words, in 2018, 1,628,900 of the 14,358,900 females of all ages in TX reported one or more disabilities.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people by gender and age group in Texas in 2018

Gender & Age Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Males
Males: All Ages 11.3 0.21 1,585,100 30,050 13,970,600 126,575
Males: Ages 4 and under 1.0 3.29 9,900 2,450 1,027,800 7,797
Males: Ages 5-15 6.3 0.39 147,900 9,420 2,331,700 19,429
Males: Ages 16-20 6.4 0.59 67,000 6,350 1,048,800 9,019
Males: Ages 21-64 9.9 0.26 791,900 21,540 7,988,800 70,636
Males: Ages 65-74 28.4 1.11 284,600 13,030 1,000,300 12,385
Males: Ages 75+ 49.5 1.62 283,900 13,020 573,200 7,309
Females
Females: All Ages 11.3 0.21 1,628,900 30,430 14,358,900 134,747
Females: Ages 4 and under 0.8 3.29 7,500 2,120 978,900 7,402
Females: Ages 5-15 4.0 0.32 89,500 7,330 2,238,900 18,988
Females: Ages 16-20 5.1 0.54 51,000 5,540 998,400 8,753
Females: Ages 21-64 9.5 0.25 777,400 21,350 8,205,600 75,453
Females: Ages 65-74 25.1 0.99 287,700 13,100 1,147,400 14,258
Females: Ages 75+ 52.7 1.38 415,900 15,720 789,800 9,893

* Note: Children ages 0-4 were only asked about visual and hearing disabilities, children ages 5-15 were not asked the "Independent Living Disability" question.

Prevalence

Hispanic/Latino Origin and Age

Introduction

This section examines the prevalence of disability among people by Hispanic/Latino origin and age group in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS)*. For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In TX in 2018, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of disability among people of Hispanic/Latino origin of all ages was 9.4 percent.
  • In other words, in 2018, 1,052,300 of the 11,247,000 people of Hispanic/Latino origin of all ages in TX reported one or more disabilities.
  • In TX in 2018, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of disability among people of non-Hispanic/Latino origin of all ages was 12.7 percent.
  • In other words, in 2018, 2,161,700 of the 17,082,500 people of non-Hispanic/Latino origin of all ages in TX reported one or more disabilities.

* Note: Children ages 0-4 were only asked about visual and hearing disabilities, children age 5-15 were not asked the "Independent Living Disability" question.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people by Hispanic / Latino origin and age group in Texas in 2018

Hispanic/Latino Origin & Age Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Hispanic
Hispanic - All Ages 9.4 0.20 1,052,300 23,070 11,247,000 88,482
Hispanic - Ages 4 and under 1.1 3.29 10,800 2,380 1,002,500 6,633
Hispanic - Ages 5-15 5.2 0.34 119,100 7,890 2,268,800 17,059
Hispanic - Ages 16-20 5.4 0.53 52,900 5,270 972,400 7,809
Hispanic - Ages 21-64 8.7 0.26 538,200 16,650 6,188,700 48,486
Hispanic - Ages 65-74 30.7 1.47 158,000 9,080 514,900 5,360
Hispanic - Ages 75+ 57.9 2.07 173,400 9,510 299,600 3,135
Non-Hispanic
Non-Hispanic - All Ages 12.7 0.18 2,161,700 32,400 17,082,500 172,840
Non-Hispanic - Ages 4 and under 0.7 3.29 6,500 1,850 1,004,200 8,566
Non-Hispanic - Ages 5-15 5.1 0.33 118,300 7,870 2,301,800 21,358
Non-Hispanic - Ages 16-20 6.0 0.53 65,000 5,840 1,074,700 9,963
Non-Hispanic - Ages 21-64 10.3 0.22 1,031,200 22,850 10,005,700 97,603
Non-Hispanic - Ages 65-74 25.4 0.78 414,300 14,640 1,632,800 21,283
Non-Hispanic - Ages 75+ 49.5 1.11 526,400 16,470 1,063,400 14,067

* Note: Children ages 0-4 were only asked about visual and hearing disabilities, children ages 5-15 were not asked the "Independent Living Disability" question.

Prevalence

Race

Introduction

This section presents the disability prevalence rate among non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by race category in TX, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

In 2018, among working-age people in TX:

  • 9.8 percent of persons who were White reported a disability.
  • 12.4 percent of persons who were Black/African American reported a disability.
  • 16.7 percent of persons who were Native American reported a disability.
  • 3.2 percent of persons who were Asian reported a disability.
  • 8.9 percent of persons who were some other race(s) reported a disability.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by race in Texas in 2018

Race Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
White 9.8 0.20 1,151,800 24,090 11,804,500 112,628
Black/African American 12.4 0.53 252,100 11,450 2,032,300 13,685
Native American or
Alaska Native
16.7 2.85 15,100 2,820 90,400 913
Asian 3.2 0.42 29,000 3,900 910,100 7,973
Some other race(s) 8.9 0.56 121,200 7,960 1,357,100 10,890

Employment

Introduction

This section examines the employment rates of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, the employment rate of working-age people with disabilities in TX was 40.8 percent.
  • In 2018, the employment rate of working-age people without disabilities in TX was 78.8 percent.
  • The gap between the employment rates of working-age people with and without disabilities was 38 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest employment rate was for people with a "Hearing Disability," 54.9 percent. The lowest employment rate was for people with a "Self-Care Disability," 16.3 percent.

Employment of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by disability status in Texas in 2018

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 78.8 0.25 11,517,300 59,910 14,625,000 130,790
Any Disability 40.8 0.90 640,600 18,130 1,569,300 15,299
Visual 48.1 1.90 175,000 9,560 364,000 3,382
Hearing 54.9 1.94 190,500 9,970 347,000 3,335
Ambulatory 27.2 1.19 200,900 10,230 737,300 7,242
Cognitive 29.2 1.33 179,600 9,680 615,200 5,878
Self-Care 16.3 1.57 47,400 4,990 290,700 2,743
Independent Living 18.0 1.21 95,400 7,070 530,300 5,107

Not Working but Actively Looking for Work

Introduction

This section focuses on the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in Texas who are not working but actively looking for work, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018 in TX, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities who were not working but actively looking for work was 7.2 percent.
  • In 2018 in TX, the percentage of working-age people without disabilities who were not working but actively looking for work was 15.6 percent.
  • The difference in the percentage not working but actively looking for work between working-age people with and without disabilities was 8.4 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest percentage of not working but actively looking for work was for people with a "Hearing Disability," 8.1 percent. The lowest percentage was for people with a "Self-Care Disability," 3.5 percent.

Percentage who are not working but actively looking for work among non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) in Texas in 2018

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 15.6 0.47 486,300 15,840 3,107,800 27,928
Any Disability 7.2 0.61 67,200 5,930 928,800 9,009
Visual 6.0 1.25 11,300 2,440 189,000 1,749
Hearing 8.1 1.58 12,700 2,590 156,500 1,431
Ambulatory 4.5 0.65 24,300 3,570 536,400 5,281
Cognitive 7.8 0.93 34,100 4,230 435,600 4,174
Self-Care 3.5 0.85 8,400 2,100 243,200 2,304
Independent Living 4.0 0.68 17,200 3,010 434,900 4,193

Full-Time / Full-Year Employment

Introduction

This section presents the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities working full-time/full-year in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities working full-time/full-year in TX was 28.3 percent.
  • In 2018, the percentage of working-age people without disabilities working full-time/full-year in TX was 62.1 percent.
  • The difference in the percentage working full-time/full-year between working-age people with and without disabilities was 33.8 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest full-time/full-year employment rate was for people with "Hearing Disability," 42.4 percent. The lowest full-time/full-year employment rate was for people with "Independent Living Disability," 9.9 percent.

Full-Time/Full-Year employment of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by disability status in Texas in 2018

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 62.1 0.29 9,082,800 57,100 14,625,000 130,790
Any Disability 28.3 0.82 444,900 15,160 1,569,300 15,299
Visual 34.6 1.81 125,800 8,110 364,000 3,382
Hearing 42.4 1.92 147,000 8,760 347,000 3,335
Ambulatory 18.5 1.04 136,600 8,450 737,300 7,242
Cognitive 17.9 1.12 110,400 7,600 615,200 5,878
Self-Care 10.3 1.29 29,900 3,960 290,700 2,743
Independent Living 9.9 0.94 52,600 5,250 530,300 5,107

Annual Earnings (Full-Time / Full-Year workers)

Introduction

This section examines the median annual earnings of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities who work full-time/full-year in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, the median earnings of working-age people with disabilities who worked full-time/full-year in TX was $40,500.
  • In 2018, the median earnings of working-age people without disabilities who worked full-time/full-year in TX was $45,600.
  • The difference in the median earnings between working-age people with and without disabilities who worked full-time/full-year was $5,100.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest annual earnings was for people with "Hearing Disability," $48,600. The lowest annual earnings was for people with "Self-Care Disability," $35,500.

Median annual earnings of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) who work full-time/full-year by disability status in Texas in 2018

Disability Type Median Earnings MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability $45,600 $370 9,083,000 80,743
Any Disability $40,500 $1,450 445,000 4,360
Visual $40,500 $2,380 126,000 1,182
Hearing $48,600 $2,920 147,000 1,488
Ambulatory $39,000 $2,290 137,000 1,311
Cognitive $35,900 $2,550 110,000 1,022
Self-Care $35,500 $4,750 30,000 272
Independent Living $35,500 $4,120 53,000 481

Annual Household Income

Introduction

This section illustrates the median annual income* of households that include any working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, the median income of households that include any working-age people with disabilities in TX was $49,300.
  • In 2018, the median income of households that do not include any working-age people with disabilities in TX was $69,200.
  • The difference in the median income between households including and not including working-age people with disabilities was $19,900.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest median income was for households including persons with a "Hearing Disability," $59,100. The lowest median income was for households containing persons with a "Self-Care Disability" $36,300.

* Note: Household income is not available for persons living in group quarters.

Median annual income* of households including any working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by disability status in Texas in 2018

Disability Type Median H.H. Income MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability $69,200 $910 6,981,000 66,975
Any Disability $49,300 1,860 1,209,000 12,972
Visual $45,600 3,550 299,000 3,016
Hearing $59,100 4,230 305,000 3,181
Ambulatory $41,500 2,250 606,000 6,549
Cognitive $42,400 2,830 463,000 5,004
Self-Care $36,300 3,310 232,000 2,487
Independent Living $42,100 2,830 404,000 4,457

* Note: Household income is not available for persons living in group quarters.

Poverty

Introduction

This section examines the poverty rates* of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, the poverty rate of working-age people with disabilities in TX was 23.5 percent.
  • In 2018, the poverty rate of working-age people without disabilities in TX was 11.1 percent.
  • The difference in the poverty rate between working-age people with and without disabilities was 12.4 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest poverty rate was for people with "Self-Care Disability," 32.7 percent. The lowest poverty rate was for people with "Hearing Disability," 19.2 percent.

* Note: The Census Bureau does not calculate poverty status for those people living in military group quarters or college dormitories.

Poverty rates* of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by disability status in Texas in 2018

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 11.1 0.30 1,618,200 44,500 14,577,100 130,074
Any Disability 23.5 1.22 368,100 21,710 1,565,900 15,252
Visual 25.9 2.62 94,300 11,040 363,500 3,372
Hearing 19.2 2.41 66,400 9,270 346,500 3,326
Ambulatory 27.0 1.86 198,700 16,000 736,700 7,233
Cognitive 28.5 2.08 175,000 15,020 613,000 5,851
Self-Care 32.7 3.13 95,200 11,090 290,700 2,743
Independent Living 28.5 2.23 151,000 13,960 530,100 5,102

* Note: The Census Bureau does not calculate poverty status for those people living in military group quarters or college dormitories.

Supplemental Security Income (SSI)

Introduction

This section focuses on the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities who receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary. Please note that these results will differ from official Social Security Administration reports for several reasons. For additional information, please email DisabilityStatistics@cornell.edu.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities receiving Supplemental Security Income payments in TX was 17.6 percent.
  • In 2018, the number of working-age people with disabilities receiving Supplemental Security Income payments in TX was 275,500.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest percentage that received SSI was people with "Self-Care Disability," 31.2 percent. The lowest percentage that received SSI was people with "Hearing Disability," 12.4 percent.

Percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities who receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments in Texas in 2018

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
Any Disability 17.6 0.70 275,500 11,970 1,569,300 15,299
Visual 15.8 1.39 57,300 5,480 364,000 3,382
Hearing 12.4 1.28 43,000 4,750 347,000 3,335
Ambulatory 22.3 1.11 164,300 9,260 737,300 7,242
Cognitive 25.9 1.28 159,600 9,130 615,200 5,878
Self-Care 31.2 1.97 90,600 6,880 290,700 2,743
Independent Living 30.0 1.44 159,200 9,120 530,300 5,107

Education

High School Diploma/Equivalent

Introduction

This section explores the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities with only a high school diploma or equivalent in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities with only a high school diploma or equivalent in TX was 32.7 percent.
  • In 2018, the percentage of working-age people without disabilities with only a high school diploma or equivalent in TX was 24.4 percent.
  • The difference in the percentage with only a high school diploma or equivalent between working-age people with and without disabilities was 8.3 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest percentage with only a high school diploma or equivalent was for people with "Independent Living Disability," 38.7 percent. The lowest percentage with only a high school diploma or equivalent was for people with "Hearing Disability," 29.4 percent.

Percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with only a high school diploma or equivalent by disability status in TX in 2018

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 24.4 0.26 3,575,200 40,540 14,625,000 130,790
Any Disability 32.7 0.86 513,900 16,280 1,569,300 15,299
Visual 31.9 1.77 116,100 7,790 364,000 3,382
Hearing 29.4 1.77 101,900 7,300 347,000 3,335
Ambulatory 32.7 1.25 241,100 11,200 737,300 7,242
Cognitive 36.3 1.40 223,300 10,790 615,200 5,878
Self-Care 36.9 2.05 107,100 7,490 290,700 2,743
Independent Living 38.7 1.53 205,100 10,340 530,300 5,107

Education

Some College/Associate's Degree

Introduction

This section examines the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities with only some college or an Associate's degree in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities with only some college or an Associate's degree in TX was 31.9 percent.
  • In 2018, the percentage of working-age people without disabilities with only some college or an Associate's degree in TX was 30.4 percent.
  • The difference in the percentage with only some college or an Associate's degree between working-age people with and without disabilities was -1.5 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest percentage with only some college or an Associate's degree was for people with "Hearing Disability," 34.4 percent. The lowest percentage with only some college or Associate's degree was for people with "Independent Living Disability," 28.4 percent.

Percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with only some college or an Associate's degree by disability status in Texas in 2018

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 30.4 0.28 4,444,400 44,410 14,625,000 130,790
Any Disability 31.9 0.85 500,100 16,060 1,569,300 15,299
Visual 28.9 1.72 105,100 7,420 364,000 3,382
Hearing 34.4 1.85 119,200 7,890 347,000 3,335
Ambulatory 31.2 1.24 230,300 10,950 737,300 7,242
Cognitive 30.0 1.34 184,300 9,810 615,200 5,878
Self-Care 29.0 1.93 84,200 6,640 290,700 2,743
Independent Living 28.4 1.42 150,500 8,870 530,300 5,107

Education

Bachelor's Degree or More

Introduction

This section presents the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities with a Bachelor's degree or more in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities with a Bachelor's degree or more in TX was 15.0 percent.
  • In 2018, the percentage of working-age people without disabilities with a Bachelor's degree or more in TX was 31.6 percent.
  • The difference in the percentage with a Bachelor's degree or more between working-age people with and without disabilities was 16.6 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest percentage with a Bachelor's degree or more was for people with "Hearing Disability," 19.0 percent. The lowest percentage with a Bachelor's degree or more was for people with "Independent Living Disability," 9.8 percent.

Percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with a Bachelor's degree or more by disability status in Texas in 2018

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 31.6 0.28 4,618,100 45,110 14,625,000 130,790
Any Disability 15.0 0.65 236,200 11,090 1,569,300 15,299
Visual 15.3 1.37 55,500 5,400 364,000 3,382
Hearing 19.0 1.53 65,900 5,870 347,000 3,335
Ambulatory 12.6 0.89 93,200 6,990 737,300 7,242
Cognitive 12.2 0.96 75,000 6,270 615,200 5,878
Self-Care 10.0 1.28 29,000 3,900 290,700 2,743
Independent Living 9.8 0.94 51,800 5,210 530,300 5,107

Veterans Service-Connected Disability Rating

Introduction

This section presents the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age (ages 21 to 64) civilian veterans reporting a service-connected disability rating in Texas. The 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) asks if the veteran has a service-connected disability, and if so, what their rating is (0-100%). A "service-connected" disability is one that has been determined by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) as being a result of disease or injury incurred or aggravated during military service. Note that a veteran can receive disability compensation for a wide range of conditions, and a veteran with a service-connected disability may not report having one of the six ACS functional or activity limitation disabilities. For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, there were 813,300 working-age civilian veterans in TX, of whom 267,400 had a VA service-connected disability.
  • In 2018, the percentage of working-age civilian veterans in TX with a VA service-connected disability was 32.9 percent.
  • In 2018, 107,100 working-age civilian veterans in TX had the most severe service-connected disability rating (70 percent or above).
  • In 2018, 40.1 percent of the working-age civilian veterans in TX who had a service connected disability had a service-connected disability rating of 70 percent or above.

Disability rating of working-age civilian veterans (ages 21 to 64) with a service-connected disability in Texas in 2018

Service-Connected Disability Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
Has a service-connected disability rating (0-100%) 32.9 1.19 267,400 11,790 813,300 7,973
Disability rating of veterans with a service connected-disability
0 percent 3.6 0.83 9,700 2,260 267,400 2,635
10 or 20 percent 21.1 1.81 56,300 5,430 267,400 2,635
30 or 40 percent 16.6 1.65 44,300 4,820 267,400 2,635
50 or 60 percent 15.6 1.61 41,700 4,670 267,400 2,635
70 percent or higher 40.1 2.17 107,100 7,490 267,400 2,635
Rating not reported 3.1 0.77 8,300 2,080 267,400 2,635

Health Insurance Coverage

Introduction

This section examines the health insurance coverage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, 81.6 percent of working-age people with disabilities in TX had some type of health insurance coverage.
  • In 2018, 75.9 percent of working-age people without disabilities in TX had some type of health insurance coverage.
  • The difference in the health insurance coverage rate between working-age people with and without disabilities was 5.7 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest health insurance coverage rate was for people with "Self-Care Disability," 87.4 percent. The lowest health insurance coverage rate was for people with "Visual Disability," 77.9 percent.

Health Insurance Coverage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by disability status in Texas in 2018

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 75.9 0.29 11,107,400 68,330 14,625,000 130,790
Any Disability 81.6 0.81 1,280,600 28,970 1,569,300 15,299
Visual 77.9 1.80 283,500 13,880 364,000 3,382
Hearing 82.9 1.67 287,800 13,980 347,000 3,335
Ambulatory 84.3 1.11 621,200 20,420 737,300 7,242
Cognitive 84.4 1.21 519,300 18,700 615,200 5,878
Self-Care 87.4 1.61 254,100 13,140 290,700 2,743
Independent Living 85.9 1.25 455,800 17,540 530,300 5,107

Type of Health Insurance Coverage

Introduction

This section examines the type of health insurance coverage for non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in Texas, using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS). Note that people can report more than one type of insurance coverage. For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2018, 35.1 percent of working-age people with disabilities in TX reported health insurance coverage through a current or former employer or union (theirs or another family member).
  • In 2018, 61.2 percent of working-age people without disabilities in TX reported health insurance coverage through a current or former employer or union (theirs or another family member).
  • In 2018, 10.4 percent of working-age people with disabilities in TX reported purchasing health insurance coverage directly from an insurance company (by themselves or another family member).
  • In 2018, 20.8 percent of working-age people with disabilities in TX reported Medicare coverage and 31.4 percent reported Medicaid coverage (or other government-assistance plan for those with low incomes or a disability).

Type of Health Insurance Coverage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by disability status in Texas in 2018

Disability Status/ Insurance Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
Any Disability
Uninsured 18.4 0.81 288,800 14,000 1,569,300 15,299
Employer/Union 35.1 1.00 550,900 19,250 1,569,300 15,299
Purchased 10.4 0.64 163,700 10,560 1,569,300 15,299
Medicare 20.8 0.85 326,400 14,880 1,569,300 15,299
Medicaid 31.4 0.97 492,500 18,220 1,569,300 15,299
Military/VA 9.1 0.60 142,300 9,850 1,569,300 15,299
Indian Health Service 0.2 3.29 3,800 1,620 1,569,300 15,299
No Disability
Uninsured 24.1 0.29 3,517,600 46,010 14,625,000 130,790
Employer/Union 61.2 0.33 8,944,600 64,980 14,625,000 130,790
Purchased 10.3 0.21 1,513,000 31,350 14,625,000 130,790
Medicare 1.2 3.29 178,300 11,020 14,625,000 130,790
Medicaid 4.9 0.15 718,700 21,920 14,625,000 130,790
Military/VA 3.5 0.13 507,300 18,490 14,625,000 130,790
Indian Health Service 0.1 3.29 21,100 3,810 14,625,000 130,790

Glossary

Actively Looking for Work

A person is defined as ACTIVELY looking for work if he or she reports looking for work during the last four weeks.

Ambulatory Disability

This disability type is based on the question (asked of persons ages 5 or older): Does this person have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs?

Base Population (Base Pop.)

The estimated number of individuals upon which the calculation is based. (For percentages, this is the denominator).

Cognitive Disability

This disability type is based on the question (asked of persons ages 5 or older): Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions?

Disability and Disability Types

The ACS definition of disability is based on six questions. A person is coded as having a disability if he or she or a proxy respondent answers affirmatively for one or more of these six categories.

  • Hearing Disability (asked of all ages): Is this person deaf or does he/she have serious difficulty hearing?
  • Visual Disability (asked of all ages): Is this person blind or does he/she have serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses?
  • Cognitive Disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older): Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions?
  • Ambulatory Disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older): Does this person have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs?
  • Self-care Disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older): Does this person have difficulty dressing or bathing?
  • Independent Living Disability (asked of persons ages 15 or older): Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor’s office or shopping?

Earnings

Earnings are defined as wages, salary, commissions, bonuses, or tips from all jobs including self-employment income (NET income after business expenses) from own nonfarm businesses or farm businesses, including proprietorships and partnerships.

Education

Our definition is based on the responses to the question: "What is the highest degree or level of school this person has completed? If currently enrolled, mark the previous grade or highest degree received." Our category "high school diploma/equivalent" includes those marking the ACS option "Regular high school diploma — GED or alternative credential." Our category "Some college/Associate's degree" includes those marking the ACS options: some college credit, but less than 1 year of college credit; one or more years of college credit but no degree, or "Associate's degree (for example: AA, AS)." Our category "a Bachelor's or more" includes those marking the ACS options: "Bachelor's degree (for example: BA, BS)"; "Master's degree (for example: MA, MS, MEng, MEd, MSW, MBA)"; "Professional degree (for example: MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD)"; or "Doctorate degree (for example: PhD, EdD)." Note in 2008 changes were made to some of the response categories and the layout of this question.

Employment

A person is considered employed if he or she is either

  1. “at work”: those who did any work at all during the reference week as a paid employee (worked in his or her own business or profession, worked on his or her own farm, or worked 15 or more hours as an unpaid worker on a family farm or business) or
  2. “with a job but not at work”: had a job but temporarily did not work at that job during the reference week due to illness, bad weather, industrial dispute, vacation or other personal reasons. The reference week is defined as the week preceding the date the questionnaire was completed.

Employment Rate

The employment rate is calculated by dividing the number of persons employed by the number of persons in that population.

** Note that the unemployment rate cannot be calculated using the employment rate:

  • The employment rate is the percentage of all persons who have a job.
  • The unemployment rate is the percentage of persons in the labor force who do not have a job but are actively looking for work. The labor force includes people who have a job, are on layoff, or who actively searched for work in the last four weeks.

Please see http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/faq.cfm#Q6 for more information on unemployment rate calculation and its implications.

Full-Time/Full-Year Employment

A person is considered employed full-time/full-year if he or she worked 35 hours or more per week (full-time) and 50 or more weeks per year (full-year). The reference period is defined as the year preceding the date the questionnaire was completed. Note: this does not signify whether a person is eligible for fringe benefits. The question and response categories regarding weeks worked per year was changed in 2008.

Group Quarters (GQ)

A GQ is a place where people live or stay that is normally owned or managed by an entity or organization providing housing and/or services for the residents. These services may include custodial or medical care as well as other types of assistance, and residency is commonly restricted to those receiving these services. People living in group quarters are usually not related to each other. Group quarters include such places as college residence halls, residential treatment centers, skilled nursing facilities, group homes, military barracks, correctional facilities, and workers' dormitories. See the definitions of institutional GQs and non-institutional GQs for more information. In addition, a description of the types of group quarters included in the 2008 ACS is located on the U.S. Census Bureau's Web site at www.census.gov/acs/www/Downloads/
2008_ACS_GQ_Definitions.pdf
.

Health Insurance Coverage

Is based on the following question: Is this person CURRENTLY covered by any of the following types of health insurance or health coverage plans? Mark "Yes" or "No" for EACH type of coverage in items a – h.

  1. Insurance through a current or former employer or union (of this person or another family member)
  2. Insurance purchased directly from an insurance company (by this person or another family member)
  3. Medicare, for people 65 and older, or people with certain disabilities
  4. Medicaid, Medical Assistance, or any kind of government-assistance plan for those with low incomes or a disability
  5. VA (including those who have ever used or enrolled for VA health care)
  6. TRICARE or other military health care
  7. Indian Health Service
  8. Any other type of health insurance or health coverage plan – Specify (Note: “Other type” were recoded into one of the categories a-g by the Census Bureau)

Hearing Disability

This disability type is based on the question (asked of all ages): Is this person deaf or does he/she have serious difficulty hearing?

Hispanic or Latino Origin

People of Hispanic or Latino origin are those who classify themselves in a specific Hispanic or Latino category in response to the question, "Is this person Spanish/Hispanic/Latino?" Specifically, those of Hispanic or Latino origin are those who are Cuban; Mexican, Mexican American, Chicano; Puerto Rican; or other Spanish/Hispanic/Latino. Origin may be the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any race.

Household Income

Household Income is defined as the total income of a household including: wages, salary, commissions, bonuses, or tips from all jobs; self-employment income (NET income after business expenses) from own non-farm or farm businesses, including proprietorships and partnerships; interest, dividends, net rental income, royalty income, or income from real estates and trusts; Social Security or Railroad Retirement; Supplemental Security Income; any public assistance or welfare payments from the state or local welfare office; retirement, survivor or disability pensions; and any other regularly received income (e.g., Veterans' payments, unemployment compensation, child support or alimony). Median household income is calculated with the household as the unit of analysis, using household weights without adjusting for household size.

Independent Living Disability

This disability type is based on the question (asked of persons ages 15 or older): Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctors office or shopping?

Institutional Group Quarters (GQs)

Includes facilities for people under formally authorized, supervised care or custody at the time of enumeration. Generally, restricted to the institution, under the care or supervision of trained staff, and classified as "patients" or "inmates." Includes: correctional, nursing, and in-patient hospice facilities, psychiatric hospitals, juvenile group homes and residential treatment centers.

Margin of Error (MOE)

Data, such as data from the American Community Survey, is based on a sample, and therefore statistics derived from this data are subject to sampling variability. The margin of error (MOE) is a measure of the degree of sampling variability. In a random sample, the degree of sampling variation is determined by the underlying variability of the phenomena being estimated (e.g., income) and the size of the sample (i.e., the number of survey participants used to calculate the statistic). The smaller the margin of error, the lower the sampling variability and the more "precise" the estimate. A margin of error is the difference between an estimate and its upper or lower confidence bounds. Confidence bounds are calculated by adding the MOE to the estimate (upper bound) and subtracting the MOE from the estimate (lower bound). All margins of error in this report are based on a 90 percent confidence level. This means that there is a 90% certainty that the actual value lies somewhere between the upper and lower confidence bounds.

Non-Institutional Group Quarters (GQs)

Includes facilities that are not classified as institutional group quarters; such as college/university housing, group homes intended for adults, residential treatment facilities for adults, workers' group living quarters and Job Corps centers and religious group quarters.

Not Working but Actively Looking for Work

A person is defined as not working but actively looking for work if he or she reports not being employed, but has been looking for work during the last four weeks.

Number

This term appears in the tables; it refers to estimated number of people in the category. (for percentages, this is the numerator).

Poverty

The poverty measure is computed based upon the standards defined in Directive 14 from the Office of Management and Budget. These standards use poverty thresholds created in 1982 and index these thresholds to 2008 dollars using poverty factors based upon the Consumer Price Index. They use the family as the income sharing unit and family income is the sum of total income from each family member living in the household. The poverty threshold depends upon the size of the family; the age of the householder; and the number of related children under the age of 18.

Race

Race categories are based on the question, "[w]hat is this person's race? Mark (X) one or more races to indicate what this person considers himself/herself to be." Responses include the following: White; Black or African-American; American Indian or Alaska Native (print name of enrolled or principal tribe); Asian Indian; Chinese; Filipino; Japanese; Korean; Vietnamese; Other Asian (Print Race); Native Hawaiian; Guamanian or Chamarro; Samoan; Other Pacific Islander (Print Race Below); Some other race (print race below). "Other race" also contains people who report more than one race.

Sample Size

The number of survey participants used to calculate the statistic.

Self-care Disability

This disability type is based on the question (asked of persons ages 5 or older): 17c. Does this person have difficulty dressing or bathing?

Supplemental Security Income (SSI)

A person is defined as receiving SSI payments if he or she reports receiving (SSI) income in the 12 months prior to the survey.

Note: The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) does not apply to Puerto Rico. SSI is a federal cash assistance program that provides monthly payments to low-income aged, blind, or disabled persons in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

Veteran Service-Connected Disability

A disease or injury determined to have occurred in or to have been aggravated by military service. A disability is evaluated according to the VA Schedule for Rating Disabilities in Title 38, CFR, and Part 4. Extent of disability is expressed as a percentage from 0% (for conditions that exist but are not disabling to a compensable degree) to 100%, in increments of 10%. This information was determined by the following two part question:

  1. Does this person have a VA service-connected disability rating?
    Yes (such as 0%, 10%, 20%, ... , 100%)
    No SKIP to question 28a
  2. What is this person’s service-connected disability rating?”
    Responses included: 0 percent; 10 or 20 percent; 30 or 40 percent; 50 or 60 percent; 70 percent or higher

Visual Disability

This disability type is based on the question:(asked of all ages): Is this person blind or does he/she have serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses?

About the Disability Status Reports

The Cornell University Disability Status Reports is produced and funded by the Yang Tan Institute at the Cornell University ILR School. This effort originated as a product of the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Demographics and Statistics (StatsRRTC) funded to the Yang Tan Institute in the ILR School at Cornell University by the U.S. Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (grant No. H133B031111).

The contents of this report do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government (Edgar, 75.620 (b)).

 

Contact Us

K. Lisa Yang and Hock E. Tan
Institute on Employment and Disability
Cornell University
Ithaca, New York 14853
Phone: 607.255.7727
Email: disabilitystatistics@cornell.edu
Web: www.disabilitystatistics.org