2019 Disability Status Report: Puerto Rico

Table of Contents

The 2019 Annual Disability Status Report

The Annual Disability Status Reports provide policy makers, disability advocates, reporters, and the public with a summary of the most recent demographic and economic statistics on the non-institutionalized population with disabilities. They contain information on the population size and disability prevalence for various demographic subpopulations, as well as statistics related to employment, earnings, household income, veterans' service-connected disability and health insurance. Comparisons are made to people without disabilities and across disability types. Disability Status Reports and other statistics are available for the United States overall, each state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico at www.disabilitystatistics.org.

The Status Reports primarily look at the working-age population because the employment gap between people with and without disabilities is a major focus of government programs and advocacy efforts. Employment is also a key factor in the social integration and economic self-sufficiency of working-age people with disabilities.

The information in this report is based on data from the US Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) - a survey sent each year to a random sample of over 3.5 million households. For more information see the Census Bureau's ACS website http://www.census.gov/acs/www/ and our Guide to Disability Statistics from the American Community Survey (2008 Forward): http://disabilitystatistics.org/sources.cfm.

The estimates in these reports are based on responses from a sample of the population and may differ from actual population values because of sampling variability and other factors. Differences observed between the estimates for two or more groups may not be statistically significant.

http://www.census.gov/people/disability/methodology/acs.html

 

Suggested Citation

Erickson, W. Lee, C., & von Schrader, S. (2022). 2019 Disability Status Report: Puerto Rico. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Yang Tan Institute on Employment and Disability (YTI).

We would like to thank Sara VanLooy, Jason Criss, and Joe Williams for their assistance with editing and production of this document.

ACS Disability Questions

There is no single accepted definition of disability. Different definitions and disability questions may identify different populations with disabilities and result in larger or smaller estimates.

Below are the six questions used in the ACS to identify persons with disabilities. Note that the Census Bureau refers to each of the individual types as "difficulty" while in this report the term "disability" is used.

  • Hearing Disability (asked of all ages):
    • Is this person deaf or does he/she have serious difficulty hearing?
  • Visual Disability (asked of all ages):
    • Is this person blind or does he/she have serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses?
  • Cognitive Disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older):
    • Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions?
  • Ambulatory Disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older):
    • Does this person have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs?
  • Self-Care Disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older):
    • Does this person have difficulty dressing or bathing?
  • Independent Living Disability (asked of persons ages 15 or older):
    • Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping?

Note:

  • The "Any Disability" category used in this report includes persons who reported one or more of the individual disability types.
  • Respondents could report more than one disability type.
  • Some disability questions were not asked of children.
  • A separate set of survey questions identify veterans with service-connected disabilities. Based on a separate set of survey questions, this report includes estimates related to veterans' service-connected disability
    (see page 51).

 

Notes

Spanish Language Reports: Spanish language versions of the Annual Disability Status Reports for the US, all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and Washington D.C. can be downloaded at the same location as the English Status Reports. The Spanish translation was made possible through funding from the Northeast ADA Center and NIDILRR.

Puerto Rico: A Puerto Rico Disability Status Report, based on the parallel 2019 Puerto Rico Community Survey (PRCS), is available again this year in English as well as Spanish. However, please note that the Puerto Rico sample is not included in any U.S. population estimates included in these reports.

Group Quarters: In 2006, the ACS began surveying the group quarters population. We include the non-institutionalized group quarters population, but due to small state level sample sizes exclude the institutionalized group quarters population (see glossary) in the Disability Status Reports.

Margin of Error (MOE): As in previous years' reports we provide the 90% MOE to better illustrate sampling variability. See the glossary entry for more information on this topic.

Glossary: As in previous years, we provide a comprehensive glossary at the back of this report defining the terms used in the Disability Status Report (see glossary).

Note: According to the Census Bureau, estimates based on the ACS Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) file such as those included in this report may differ slightly from the ACS summary tables produced by the Census Bureau, because they are subject to additional sampling error and further data processing operations. Please see http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/faq.cfm#Q4 for further information.

Puerto Rico Summary

These statistics indicate the social and economic status of non-institutionalized people with disabilities in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS).

Age: In 2019, the prevalence of disability in PR was:

  • 21.7 percent for persons of all ages
  • 0.8 percent for persons ages 4 and under
  • 11.7 percent for persons ages 5 to 15
  • 9.1 percent for persons ages 16 to 20
  • 16.6 percent for persons ages 21 to 64
  • 37 percent for persons ages 65 to 74
  • 61.9 percent for persons ages 75+

Disability Type: In 2019, the prevalence of the six disability types among persons of all ages in PR was:

  • 6.6% reported a Visual Disability
  • 4.5% reported a Hearing Disability
  • 12.3% reported an Ambulatory Disability
  • 9.9% reported a Cognitive Disability
  • 5.2% reported a Self-Care Disability
  • 11.2% reported an Independent Living Disability

Gender: In 2019, 22 percent of females of all ages and 21.4 percent of males of all ages in PR reported a disability.

Hispanic/Latino: In 2019, the prevalence of disability among persons of all ages of Hispanic or Latino origin in PR was 21.8 percent.

Race: In PR in 2019, the prevalence of disability for working-age people (ages 21 to 64) was:

  • 16.3 percent among Whites
  • 15.4 percent among Black / African Americans
  • 0.7 percent among Asians
  • 27.8 percent among Native Americans
  • 18.1 percent among persons of some other race(s)

Employment: In 2019, the employment rate of working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in PR was 24 percent.

Looking for Work: In PR in 2019, the percentage actively looking for work among people with disabilities who were not working was 6.8 percent.

Full-Time/Full-Year Employment: In PR in 2019, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities working full-time/full-year was 14.6 percent.

Annual Earnings: In 2019, the median annual earnings of working-age people with disabilities working full-time/full-year in PR was $21,200.

Annual Household Income: In PR in 2019, the median annual income of households with working-age people with disabilities was $18,400.

Poverty: In PR in 2019, the poverty rate of working-age people with disabilities was 53.3 percent.

Supplemental Security Income: Supplemental Security Income (SSI) does not apply to Puerto Rico. SSI is a federal cash assistance program that provides monthly payments to low-income aged, blind, or disabled persons in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

Educational Attainment: In 2019, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities in PR:

  • with only a high school diploma or equivalent was 31.5 percent
  • with only some college or an associate degree was 24.9 percent
  • with a bachelor's degree or more was 18.2 percent.

Veterans Service-Connected Disability: In 2019, the percentage of working-age civilian veterans with a VA determined Service-Connected Disability was 45.9 percent in PR.

Health Insurance Coverage: In 2019 in PR, 93.7 percent of working-age people with disabilities had health insurance.

Prevalence: Ages 21 - 64

This summary lists percentages by state of non-institutionalized working-age (ages 21 to 64) people with disabilities using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). The US disability prevalence rate for this population was 10.5%

Location 2019 (%) Location 2019 (%)
Alabama 14.7 Montana 10.3
Alaska 10.5 Nebraska 9.9
Arizona 10.7 Nevada 9.7
Arkansas 16.1 New Hampshire 10.4
California 8.0 New Jersey 7.7
Colorado 8.5 New Mexico 14.1
Connecticut 9.5 New York 9.1
Delaware 11.8 North Carolina 11.1
District of Columbia 10.0 North Dakota 9.4
Florida 10.3 Ohio 12.0
Georgia 11.0 Oklahoma 14.4
Hawaii 8.0 Oregon 12.0
Idaho 11.9 Pennsylvania 12.0
Illinois 9.2 Puerto Rico 16.6
Indiana 11.9 Rhode Island 11.1
Iowa 9.9 South Carolina 12.3
Kansas 12.4 South Dakota 10.3
Kentucky 16.7 Tennessee 13.4
Louisiana 14.2 Texas 9.7
Maine 14.2 Utah 7.9
Maryland 9.0 Vermont 12.0
Massachusetts 8.7 Virginia 9.7
Michigan 12.4 Washington 10.4
Minnesota 8.8 West Virginia 17.6
Mississippi 15.5 Wisconsin 9.9
Missouri 13.1 Wyoming 12.0

Employment: Ages 21 - 64

This summary lists employment rates by state of non-institutionalized working-age (ages 21 to 64) people with disabilities using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). The employment rate in the US for this population was 39.2% for people with disabilities and 80.7% for people without disabilities.

Location People with Disabilities 2019 People without Disabilities 2019 Location People with Disabilities 2019 People without Disabilities 2019
Alabama 33.3 76.7 Montana 46.3 81.5
Alaska 40.5 76.5 Nebraska 52.4 87.3
Arizona 39.4 78.3 Nevada 39.3 79.2
Arkansas 33.0 79.7 New Hampshire 44.4 85.0
California 38.7 78.7 New Jersey 40.6 81.9
Colorado 47.9 83.2 New Mexico 36.0 76.9
Connecticut 43.5 82.2 New York 35.5 80.7
Delaware 42.2 81.9 North Carolina 35.9 80.1
District of Columbia 33.2 83.8 North Dakota 57.8 87.7
Florida 36.5 79.7 Ohio 39.7 81.6
Georgia 36.3 79.7 Oklahoma 40.0 79.2
Hawaii 40.5 82.7 Oregon 45.1 79.9
Idaho 43.4 81.0 Pennsylvania 38.9 81.8
Illinois 39.0 81.5 Puerto Rico 24.0 59.8
Indiana 40.0 81.8 Rhode Island 35.3 83.7
Iowa 46.5 85.4 South Carolina 34.6 79.4
Kansas 44.7 84.5 South Dakota 51.8 86.3
Kentucky 32.8 78.6 Tennessee 35.5 80.1
Louisiana 35.3 76.3 Texas 42.6 79.7
Maine 36.2 83.6 Utah 50.8 82.3
Maryland 44.4 83.2 Vermont 43.2 85.3
Massachusetts 41.4 84.1 Virginia 44.0 82.6
Michigan 36.1 80.1 Washington 42.8 81.4
Minnesota 48.1 86.6 West Virginia 31.5 74.7
Mississippi 31.4 76.3 Wisconsin 43.1 84.9
Missouri 37.1 82.1 Wyoming 51.4 81.6

Prevalence

All Ages

Introduction

This section addresses the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people of all ages in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of people with a disability of all ages in PR was 21.7 percent.
  • In other words, in 2019, 688,000 of the 3,172,000 individuals of all ages in PR reported one or more disabilities.
  • In PR in 2019, among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest prevalence rate was for "Ambulatory Disability," 12.3 percent. The lowest prevalence rate was for "Hearing Disability," 4.5 percent.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people of all ages in Puerto Rico in 2019*

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 21.7 0.49 688,000 15,630 3,172,000 27,456
Visual 6.6 0.30 209,900 9,420 3,172,000 27,456
Hearing 4.5 0.25 144,300 7,900 3,172,000 27,456
Ambulatory 12.3 0.40 375,500 12,250 3,057,100 26,582
Cognitive 9.9 0.36 301,800 11,120 3,057,100 26,582
Self-Care 5.2 0.27 159,100 8,270 3,057,100 26,582
Independent Living 11.2 0.41 304,200 11,160 2,713,900 24,083

* Note: Children under the age of five were only asked about Vision and Hearing disabilities. The Independent Living disability question was only asked of persons aged 16 years old and older.

Prevalence

Ages 4 years and under

Introduction

This section focuses on the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized children ages 4 and under in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Only the two sensory disability questions were asked of this population. For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of children with a visual and/or hearing disability ages 0 to 4 in PR was 0.8 percent.
  • In other words, in 2019, 900 of the 114,900 children ages 0 to 4 in PR reported one or more disabilities.
  • In PR in 2019, 0.3 percent reported a visual disability
  • In PR in 2019, 0.6 percent reported a hearing disability

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 4 and under in Puerto Rico in 2019

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 0.8 3.29 900 630 114,900 874
Visual 0.3 3.29 400 400 114,900 874
Hearing 0.6 3.29 700 580 114,900 874

Prevalence

Ages 5 to 15 years

Introduction

This section focuses on the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized children ages 5 to 15 in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS)*. For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of children with a disability ages 5 to 15 in PR was 11.7 percent.
  • In other words, in 2019, 44,400 of the 378,300 individuals ages 5 to 15 in PR reported one or more disabilities.
  • In PR in 2019, among the five types of disabilities* identified in the ACS, the highest prevalence rate was for "Cognitive Disability," 9.3 percent. The lowest prevalence rate was for "Hearing Disability," 0.7 percent.

Prevalence of disability* among non-institutionalized people ages 5 to 15 in Puerto Rico in 2019

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 11.7 1.11 44,400 4,450 378,300 2,789
Visual 2.6 0.55 9,700 2,100 378,300 2,789
Hearing 0.7 3.29 2,800 1,130 378,300 2,789
Ambulatory 1.2 3.29 4,500 1,430 378,300 2,789
Cognitive 9.3 1 35,100 3,970 378,300 2,789
Self-Care 1 3.29 3,800 1,310 378,300 2,789

* Note: The "Independent Living Disability" question was not asked of children ages 15 years and younger.

Prevalence

Ages 16 to 20 years

Introduction

This section focuses on the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 16 to 20 in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of people with a disability ages 16 to 20 in PR was 9.1 percent.
  • In other words, in 2019, 20,000 of the 219,000 individuals ages 16 to 20 in PR reported one or more disabilities.
  • In PR in 2019, among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest prevalence rate was for "Cognitive Disability," 6.1 percent. The lowest prevalence rate was for "Ambulatory Disability," 0.3 percent.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 16 to 20 in Puerto Rico in 2019

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 9.1 1.31 20,000 3,000 219,000 1,664
Visual 2.8 0.75 6,200 1,670 219,000 1,664
Hearing 0.8 3.29 1,700 870 219,000 1,664
Ambulatory 0.3 3.29 700 560 219,000 1,664
Cognitive 6.1 1.09 13,400 2,460 219,000 1,664
Self-Care 0.4 3.29 800 590 219,000 1,664
Independent Living 2.4 0.69 5,200 1,530 219,000 1,664

Prevalence

Ages 21 to 64 years

Introduction

This section focuses on the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of working age people (ages 21 to 64) with a disability in PR was 16.6 percent.
  • In other words, in 2019, 296,100 of the 1,785,500 individuals ages 21 to 64 in PR reported one or more disabilities.
  • In PR in 2019, among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest prevalence rate was for "Ambulatory Disability," 8.2 percent. The lowest prevalence rate was "Hearing Disability," 2.4 percent.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 21 to 64 in Puerto Rico in 2019

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 16.6 0.59 296,100 11,030 1,785,500 14,670
Visual 4.9 0.34 88,100 6,230 1,785,500 14,670
Hearing 2.4 0.24 42,800 4,370 1,785,500 14,670
Ambulatory 8.2 0.44 146,400 7,950 1,785,500 14,670
Cognitive 7.5 0.42 133,100 7,600 1,785,500 14,670
Self-Care 3.1 0.27 54,800 4,940 1,785,500 14,670
Independent Living 6.2 0.39 111,600 6,980 1,785,500 14,670

Prevalence

Ages 65 to 74 years

Introduction

This section explores the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 65 to 74 in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of people with a disability ages 65 to 74 in PR was 37 percent.
  • In other words, in 2019, 135,100 of the 365,000 individuals ages 65 to 74 in PR reported one or more disabilities.
  • In PR in 2019, among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest prevalence rate was for "Ambulatory Disability," 24.1 percent. The lowest prevalence rate was for "Self-Care Disability," 7.4 percent.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 65 to 74 in Puerto Rico in 2019

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 37 1.70 135,100 7,650 365,000 4,092
Visual 11.9 1.14 43,400 4,400 365,000 4,092
Hearing 9.2 1.02 33,600 3,880 365,000 4,092
Ambulatory 24.1 1.51 88,100 6,230 365,000 4,092
Cognitive 11.4 1.12 41,800 4,320 365,000 4,092
Self-Care 7.4 0.92 27,000 3,480 365,000 4,092
Independent Living 14.9 1.25 54,400 4,920 365,000 4,092

Prevalence

Ages 75 and Older

Introduction

This section focuses on the prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 75 and older in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of people with a disability ages 75 and older in PR was 61.9 percent.
  • In other words, in 2019, 191,400 of the 309,300 individuals ages 75 and older in PR reported one or more disabilities.
  • In PR in 2019, among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest prevalence rate was for "Ambulatory Disability," 43.9 percent. The lowest prevalence rate was for "Visual Disability," 20.1 percent.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people ages 75 and older in Puerto Rico in 2019

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Any Disability 61.9 1.86 191,400 9,030 309,300 3,367
Visual 20.1 1.53 62,000 5,250 309,300 3,367
Hearing 20.3 1.54 62,700 5,280 309,300 3,367
Ambulatory 43.9 1.90 135,700 7,670 309,300 3,367
Cognitive 25.3 1.66 78,300 5,880 309,300 3,367
Self-Care 23.5 1.62 72,700 5,670 309,300 3,367
Independent Living 42.6 1.89 131,800 7,560 309,300 3,367

Prevalence

Gender and Age

Introduction

This section examines the prevalence of disability among people by gender and age group in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS)*. For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In PR in 2019, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of males with a disability of all ages was 21.4 percent.
  • In other words, in 2019, 320,700 of the 1,501,900 males of all ages in PR reported one or more disabilities.
  • In PR in 2019, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of females with a disability of all ages was 22 percent.
  • In other words, in 2019, 367,300 of the 1,670,100 females of all ages in PR reported one or more disabilities.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people by gender and age group in Puerto Rico in 2019

Gender & Age Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Males
Males: All Ages 21.4 0.71 320,700 11,430 1,501,900 12,686
Males: Ages 4 and under 0.9 3.29 500 480 56,500 437
Males: Ages 5-15 15.1 1.73 29,200 3,620 193,500 1,446
Males: Ages 16-20 11.4 1.99 13,000 2,430 114,800 891
Males: Ages 21-64 16.9 0.87 143,000 7,860 843,800 6,690
Males: Ages 65-74 36.2 2.52 59,400 5,140 164,300 1,859
Males: Ages 75+ 58.5 2.92 75,500 5,780 129,000 1,363
Females
Females: All Ages 22 0.68 367,300 12,130 1,670,100 14,770
Females: Ages 4 and under 0.6 3.29 400 400 58,400 437
Females: Ages 5-15 8.2 1.36 15,200 2,610 184,800 1,343
Females: Ages 16-20 6.7 1.65 7,000 1,770 104,200 773
Females: Ages 21-64 16.3 0.81 153,200 8,130 941,600 7,980
Females: Ages 65-74 37.7 2.30 75,700 5,780 200,800 2,233
Females: Ages 75+ 64.3 2.40 115,900 7,110 180,300 2,004

* Note: Children ages 0-4 were only asked about visual and hearing disabilities, children ages 5-15 were not asked the "Independent Living Disability" question.

Prevalence

Hispanic/Latino Origin and Age

Introduction

This section examines the prevalence of disability among people by Hispanic/Latino origin and age group in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS)*. For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In PR in 2019, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of disability among people of Hispanic/Latino origin of all ages was 21.8 percent.
  • In other words, in 2019, 677,600 of the 3,113,400 people of Hispanic/Latino origin of all ages in PR reported one or more disabilities.
  • In PR in 2019, the overall percentage (prevalence rate) of disability among people of non-Hispanic/Latino origin of all ages was 17.8 percent.
  • In other words, in 2019, 10,400 of the 58,500 people of non-Hispanic/Latino origin of all ages in PR reported one or more disabilities.

* Note: Children ages 0-4 were only asked about visual and hearing disabilities, children age 5-15 were not asked the "Independent Living Disability" question.

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized people by Hispanic / Latino origin and age group in Puerto Rico in 2019

Hispanic/Latino Origin & Age Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
Hispanic
Hispanic - All Ages 21.8 0.50 677,600 15,550 3,113,400 27,020
Hispanic - Ages 4 and under 0.8 3.29 900 630 112,500 856
Hispanic - Ages 5-15 11.9 1.13 44,100 4,440 369,700 2,734
Hispanic - Ages 16-20 9.3 1.33 20,000 3,000 216,200 1,646
Hispanic - Ages 21-64 16.6 0.60 290,800 10,940 1,748,900 14,393
Hispanic - Ages 65-74 36.9 1.71 133,000 7,600 360,100 4,049
Hispanic - Ages 75+ 61.7 1.87 188,800 8,970 305,900 3,342
Non-Hispanic
Non-Hispanic - All Ages 17.8 3.36 10,400 2,170 58,500 436
Non-Hispanic - Ages 4 and under 0 3.29 0 400 2,300 18
Non-Hispanic - Ages 5-15 3.7 4.34 300 400 8,600 55
Non-Hispanic - Ages 16-20 0 3.29 0 400 2,800 18
Non-Hispanic - Ages 21-64 14.5 3.92 5,300 1,550 36,600 277
Non-Hispanic - Ages 65-74 43.9 15.05 2,200 990 4,900 43
Non-Hispanic - Ages 75+ 78.5 15.17 2,600 1,090 3,300 25

* Note: Children ages 0-4 were only asked about visual and hearing disabilities, children ages 5-15 were not asked the "Independent Living Disability" question.
Caution: Estimate based on small sample size (less than 40 individuals).

Prevalence

Race

Introduction

This section presents the disability prevalence rate among non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by race category in PR, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

In 2019, among working-age people in PR:

  • 16.3 percent of persons who were White reported a disability.
  • 15.4 percent of persons who were Black/African American reported a disability.
  • 27.8 percent of persons who were Native American reported a disability.
  • 0.7 percent of persons who were Asian reported a disability.
  • 18.1 percent of persons who were some other race(s) reported a disability.

Caution: Estimate based on small sample size (less than 40 individuals).

Prevalence of disability among non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by race in Puerto Rico in 2019

Race Percent MOE Number MOE Base Population Sample Size
White 16.3 0.74 185,400 8,890 1,136,200 9,586
Black/African American 15.4 1.60 35,300 3,980 229,500 1,901
Native American or
Alaska Native
27.8 22.85 500 470 1,700 18
Asian 0.7 3.29 0 400 4,800 36
Some other race(s) 18.1 1.28 74,900 5,760 413,100 3,129

Caution: Estimate based on small sample size (less than 40 individuals).

Employment

Introduction

This section examines the employment rates of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019, the employment rate of working-age people with disabilities in PR was 24 percent.
  • In 2019, the employment rate of working-age people without disabilities in PR was 59.8 percent.
  • The gap between the employment rates of working-age people with and without disabilities was 35.8 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest employment rate was for people with a "Visual Disability," 33.5 percent. The lowest employment rate was for people with a "Independent Living Disability," 7.1 percent.

Employment of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by disability status in Puerto Rico in 2019

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 59.8 0.85 891,100 17,030 1,489,300 12,025
Any Disability 24 1.67 71,200 5,610 296,100 2,645
Visual 33.5 3.38 29,500 3,640 88,100 789
Hearing 27.7 4.60 11,900 2,310 42,800 373
Ambulatory 18 2.14 26,300 3,440 146,400 1,336
Cognitive 13.3 1.98 17,700 2,820 133,100 1,130
Self-Care 10.6 2.80 5,800 1,620 54,800 482
Independent Living 7.1 1.63 7,900 1,890 111,600 955

Not Working but Actively Looking for Work

Introduction

This section focuses on the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in Puerto Rico who are not working but actively looking for work, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019 in PR, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities who were not working but actively looking for work was 6.8 percent.
  • In 2019 in PR, the percentage of working-age people without disabilities who were not working but actively looking for work was 22.9 percent.
  • The difference in the percentage not working but actively looking for work between working-age people with and without disabilities was 16.1 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest percentage of not working but actively looking for work was for people with a "Visual Disability," 10.4 percent. The lowest percentage was for people with a "Self-Care Disability," 2 percent.

Percentage who are not working but actively looking for work among non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) in Puerto Rico in 2019

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 22.9 1.16 136,800 7,700 598,200 4,889
Any Disability 6.8 1.13 15,200 2,620 225,000 1,998
Visual 10.4 2.68 6,100 1,660 58,600 520
Hearing 9.3 3.51 2,900 1,140 30,900 271
Ambulatory 3.9 1.19 4,700 1,460 120,100 1,096
Cognitive 4.7 1.33 5,400 1,560 115,400 976
Self-Care 2 1.35 1,000 660 49,000 432
Independent Living 2.7 1.07 2,800 1,130 103,700 882

Full-Time / Full-Year Employment

Introduction

This section presents the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities working full-time/full-year in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities working full-time/full-year in PR was 14.6 percent.
  • In 2019, the percentage of working-age people without disabilities working full-time/full-year in PR was 42 percent.
  • The difference in the percentage working full-time/full-year between working-age people with and without disabilities was 27.4 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest full-time/full-year employment rate was for people with "Visual Disability," 20 percent. The lowest full-time/full-year employment rate was for people with "Independent Living Disability," 3.4 percent.

Full-Time/Full-Year employment of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by disability status in Puerto Rico in 2019

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 42 0.86 625,500 15,090 1,489,300 12,025
Any Disability 14.6 1.38 43,300 4,400 296,100 2,645
Visual 20 2.87 17,600 2,820 88,100 789
Hearing 17.8 3.93 7,600 1,850 42,800 373
Ambulatory 11.4 1.77 16,700 2,740 146,400 1,336
Cognitive 7.1 1.50 9,400 2,060 133,100 1,130
Self-Care 5.9 2.14 3,200 1,210 54,800 482
Independent Living 3.4 1.15 3,800 1,310 111,600 955

Annual Earnings (Full-Time / Full-Year workers)

Introduction

This section examines the median annual earnings of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities who work full-time/full-year in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019, the median earnings of working-age people with disabilities who worked full-time/full-year in PR was $21,200.
  • In 2019, the median earnings of working-age people without disabilities who worked full-time/full-year in PR was $23,700.
  • The difference in the median earnings between working-age people with and without disabilities who worked full-time/full-year was $2,500.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest annual earnings was for people with "Self-Care Disability," $26,300. The lowest annual earnings was for people with "Independent Living Disability," $18,400.

Caution: Estimate based on small sample size (less than 40 individuals).

Median annual earnings of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) who work full-time/full-year by disability status in Puerto Rico in 2019

Disability Type Median Earnings MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability $23,700 $640 626,000 5,071
Any Disability $21,200 $2,490 43,000 395
Visual $21,000 $3,920 18,000 164
Hearing $23,200 $6,820 8,000 67
Ambulatory $22,200 $3,800 17,000 150
Cognitive $21,000 $5,340 9,000 81
Self-Care $26,300 $11,800 3,000 29
Independent Living $18,400 $7,980 4,000 35

Caution: Estimate based on small sample size (less than 40 individuals).

Annual Household Income

Introduction

This section illustrates the median annual income* of households that include any working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019, the median income of households that include any working-age people with disabilities in PR was $18,400.
  • In 2019, the median income of households that do not include any working-age people with disabilities in PR was $26,600.
  • The difference in the median income between households including and not including working-age people with disabilities was $8,200.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest median income was for households including persons with a "Any Disability," $18,400. The lowest median income was for households containing persons with a "Visual Disability" $16,100.

* Note: Household income is not available for persons living in group quarters.

Median annual income* of households including any working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by disability status in Puerto Rico in 2019

Disability Type Median H.H. Income MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability $26,600 $1,150 660,000 6,373
Any Disability $18,400 1,460 218,000 2,210
Visual $16,100 2,340 67,000 690
Hearing $18,100 4,100 36,000 354
Ambulatory $17,900 1,790 120,000 1,209
Cognitive $18,000 2,040 97,000 983
Self-Care $18,400 2,750 44,000 452
Independent Living $17,000 1,930 83,000 849

* Note: Household income is not available for persons living in group quarters.

Poverty

Introduction

This section examines the poverty rates* of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019, the poverty rate of working-age people with disabilities in PR was 53.3 percent.
  • In 2019, the poverty rate of working-age people without disabilities in PR was 37.4 percent.
  • The difference in the poverty rate between working-age people with and without disabilities was 15.9 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest poverty rate was for people with "Independent Living Disability," 57.9 percent. The lowest poverty rate was for people with "Hearing Disability," 54.2 percent.

* Note: The Census Bureau does not calculate poverty status for those people living in military group quarters or college dormitories.

Poverty rates* of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by disability status in Puerto Rico in 2019

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 37.4 1.10 556,100 18,860 1,488,000 12,007
Any Disability 53.3 2.55 157,700 10,770 295,900 2,642
Visual 57.2 4.64 50,400 6,200 88,100 789
Hearing 54.2 6.70 23,200 4,220 42,800 373
Ambulatory 54.5 3.62 79,800 7,760 146,400 1,336
Cognitive 56.5 3.78 75,100 7,540 132,900 1,127
Self-Care 55.1 5.91 30,200 4,810 54,800 482
Independent Living 57.9 4.11 64,600 7,000 111,600 955

* Note: The Census Bureau does not calculate poverty status for those people living in military group quarters or college dormitories.

Supplemental Security Income (SSI)

Note

Supplemental Security Income (SSI) does not apply to Puerto Rico.

Education

High School Diploma/Equivalent

Introduction

This section explores the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities with only a high school diploma or equivalent in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities with only a high school diploma or equivalent in PR was 31.5 percent.
  • In 2019, the percentage of working-age people without disabilities with only a high school diploma or equivalent in PR was 26.8 percent.
  • The difference in the percentage with only a high school diploma or equivalent between working-age people with and without disabilities was 4.7 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest percentage with only a high school diploma or equivalent was for people with "Visual Disability," 35.3 percent. The lowest percentage with only a high school diploma or equivalent was for people with "Self-Care Disability," 26.7 percent.

Percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with only a high school diploma or equivalent by disability status in PR in 2019

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 26.8 0.83 398,600 13,530 1,489,300 12,025
Any Disability 31.5 1.96 93,100 6,890 296,100 2,645
Visual 35.3 3.69 31,100 4,020 88,100 789
Hearing 29.9 5.07 12,800 2,590 42,800 373
Ambulatory 31.7 2.79 46,400 4,900 146,400 1,336
Cognitive 29.5 2.86 39,200 4,510 133,100 1,130
Self-Care 26.7 4.33 14,600 2,770 54,800 482
Independent Living 28.8 3.11 32,200 4,090 111,600 955

Education

Some College/Associate's Degree

Introduction

This section examines the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities with only some college or an Associate's degree in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities with only some college or an Associate's degree in PR was 24.9 percent.
  • In 2019, the percentage of working-age people without disabilities with only some college or an Associate's degree in PR was 31.2 percent.
  • The difference in the percentage with only some college or an Associate's degree between working-age people with and without disabilities was 6.3 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest percentage with only some college or an Associate's degree was for people with "Ambulatory Disability," 26.3 percent. The lowest percentage with only some college or Associate's degree was for people with "Independent Living Disability," 21 percent.

Percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with only some college or an Associate's degree by disability status in Puerto Rico in 2019

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 31.2 0.87 465,200 14,450 1,489,300 12,025
Any Disability 24.9 1.82 73,700 6,150 296,100 2,645
Visual 23.7 3.28 20,900 3,300 88,100 789
Hearing 24.5 4.76 10,500 2,340 42,800 373
Ambulatory 26.3 2.64 38,500 4,470 146,400 1,336
Cognitive 21.8 2.59 29,100 3,890 133,100 1,130
Self-Care 23.1 4.13 12,700 2,580 54,800 482
Independent Living 21 2.79 23,400 3,490 111,600 955

Education

Bachelor's Degree or More

Introduction

This section presents the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities with a Bachelor's degree or more in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019, the percentage of working-age people with disabilities with a Bachelor's degree or more in PR was 18.2 percent.
  • In 2019, the percentage of working-age people without disabilities with a Bachelor's degree or more in PR was 32.5 percent.
  • The difference in the percentage with a Bachelor's degree or more between working-age people with and without disabilities was 14.3 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest percentage with a Bachelor's degree or more was for people with "Visual Disability," 18.6 percent. The lowest percentage with a Bachelor's degree or more was for people with "Independent Living Disability," 13.7 percent.

Percentage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with a Bachelor's degree or more by disability status in Puerto Rico in 2019

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 32.5 0.88 483,800 14,680 1,489,300 12,025
Any Disability 18.2 1.62 53,900 5,280 296,100 2,645
Visual 18.6 3 16,400 2,930 88,100 789
Hearing 16.4 4.10 7,000 1,920 42,800 373
Ambulatory 17.2 2.26 25,200 3,620 146,400 1,336
Cognitive 13.9 2.17 18,600 3,110 133,100 1,130
Self-Care 16.9 3.67 9,300 2,200 54,800 482
Independent Living 13.7 2.36 15,300 2,830 111,600 955

Veterans Service-Connected Disability Rating

Introduction

This section presents the percentage of non-institutionalized working-age (ages 21 to 64) civilian veterans reporting a service-connected disability rating in Puerto Rico. The 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) asks if the veteran has a service-connected disability, and if so, what their rating is (0-100%). A "service-connected" disability is one that has been determined by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) as being a result of disease or injury incurred or aggravated during military service. Note that a veteran can receive disability compensation for a wide range of conditions, and a veteran with a service-connected disability may not report having one of the six ACS functional or activity limitation disabilities. For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019, there were 22,800 working-age civilian veterans in PR, of whom 10,400 had a VA service-connected disability.
  • In 2019, the percentage of working-age civilian veterans in PR with a VA service-connected disability was 45.9 percent.
  • In 2019, 5,100 working-age civilian veterans in PR had the most severe service-connected disability rating (70 percent or above).
  • In 2019, 49 percent of the working-age civilian veterans in PR who had a service connected disability had a service-connected disability rating of 70 percent or above.

Disability rating of working-age civilian veterans (ages 21 to 64) with a service-connected disability in Puerto Rico in 2019

Service-Connected Disability Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
Has a service-connected disability rating (0-100%) 45.9 7.03 10,400 2,170 22,800 227
Disability rating of veterans with a service connected-disability
0 percent 3.7 3.93 400 400 10,400 108
10 or 20 percent 16 7.63 1,700 870 10,400 108
30 or 40 percent 13.4 7.09 1,400 800 10,400 108
50 or 60 percent 15.3 7.50 1,600 850 10,400 108
70 percent or higher 49 10.41 5,100 1,520 10,400 108
Rating not reported 2.5 3.25 300 400 10,400 108

Health Insurance Coverage

Introduction

This section examines the health insurance coverage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019, 93.7 percent of working-age people with disabilities in PR had some type of health insurance coverage.
  • In 2019, 87.1 percent of working-age people without disabilities in PR had some type of health insurance coverage.
  • The difference in the health insurance coverage rate between working-age people with and without disabilities was 6.6 percentage points.
  • Among the six types of disabilities identified in the ACS, the highest health insurance coverage rate was for people with "Self-Care Disability," 96.2 percent. The lowest health insurance coverage rate was for people with "Hearing Disability," 92.9 percent.

Health Insurance Coverage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by disability status in Puerto Rico in 2019

Disability Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
No Disability 87.1 0.81 1,297,900 25,860 1,489,300 12,025
Any Disability 93.7 1.32 277,400 14,830 296,100 2,645
Visual 93.7 2.41 82,600 8,360 88,100 789
Hearing 92.9 3.66 39,800 5,840 42,800 373
Ambulatory 95 1.68 139,000 10,740 146,400 1,336
Cognitive 95.5 1.67 127,100 10,290 133,100 1,130
Self-Care 96.2 2.41 52,700 6,710 54,800 482
Independent Living 95.9 1.75 107,000 9,480 111,600 955

Type of Health Insurance Coverage

Introduction

This section examines the type of health insurance coverage for non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) with disabilities in Puerto Rico, using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Note that people can report more than one type of insurance coverage. For definitions of terms, see Glossary.

Quick Statistics

  • In 2019, 15.8 percent of working-age people with disabilities in PR reported health insurance coverage through a current or former employer or union (theirs or another family member).
  • In 2019, 34.7 percent of working-age people without disabilities in PR reported health insurance coverage through a current or former employer or union (theirs or another family member).
  • In 2019, 9 percent of working-age people with disabilities in PR reported purchasing health insurance coverage directly from an insurance company (by themselves or another family member).
  • In 2019, 28.8 percent of working-age people with disabilities in PR reported Medicare coverage and 60 percent reported Medicaid coverage (or other government-assistance plan for those with low incomes or a disability).

Type of Health Insurance Coverage of non-institutionalized working-age people (ages 21 to 64) by disability status in Puerto Rico in 2019

Disability Status/ Insurance Type Percent MOE Number MOE Base Pop. Sample Size
Any Disability
Uninsured 6.3 1.32 18,800 4,020 296,100 2,645
Employer/Union 15.8 1.97 46,700 6,320 296,100 2,645
Purchased 9 1.55 26,700 4,800 296,100 2,645
Medicare 28.8 2.45 85,300 8,490 296,100 2,645
Medicaid 60 2.65 177,700 12,070 296,100 2,645
Military/VA 2.4 0.83 7,100 2,470 296,100 2,645
Indian Health Service 0 3.29 100 400 296,100 2,645
No Disability
Uninsured 12.9 0.81 191,400 12,500 1,489,300 12,025
Employer/Union 34.7 1.15 516,300 19,380 1,489,300 12,025
Purchased 12.6 0.80 188,100 12,400 1,489,300 12,025
Medicare 4.7 0.51 70,600 7,740 1,489,300 12,025
Medicaid 39.1 1.18 581,700 20,320 1,489,300 12,025
Military/VA 1.1 3.29 17,100 3,840 1,489,300 12,025
Indian Health Service 0 3.29 300 400 1,489,300 12,025

Glossary

Actively Looking for Work

A person is defined as ACTIVELY looking for work if he or she reports looking for work during the last four weeks.

Ambulatory Disability

This disability type is based on the question (asked of persons ages 5 or older): Does this person have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs?

Base Population (Base Pop.)

The estimated number of individuals upon which the calculation is based. (For percentages, this is the denominator).

Cognitive Disability

This disability type is based on the question (asked of persons ages 5 or older): Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions?

Disability and Disability Types

The ACS definition of disability is based on six questions. A person is coded as having a disability if he or she or a proxy respondent answers affirmatively for one or more of these six categories.

  • Hearing Disability (asked of all ages): Is this person deaf or does he/she have serious difficulty hearing?
  • Visual Disability (asked of all ages): Is this person blind or does he/she have serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses?
  • Cognitive Disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older): Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions?
  • Ambulatory Disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older): Does this person have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs?
  • Self-care Disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older): Does this person have difficulty dressing or bathing?
  • Independent Living Disability (asked of persons ages 15 or older): Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor’s office or shopping?

Earnings

Earnings are defined as wages, salary, commissions, bonuses, or tips from all jobs including self-employment income (NET income after business expenses) from own nonfarm businesses or farm businesses, including proprietorships and partnerships.

Education

Our definition is based on the responses to the question: "What is the highest degree or level of school this person has completed? If currently enrolled, mark the previous grade or highest degree received." Our category "high school diploma/equivalent" includes those marking the ACS option "Regular high school diploma — GED or alternative credential." Our category "Some college/Associate's degree" includes those marking the ACS options: some college credit, but less than 1 year of college credit; one or more years of college credit but no degree, or "Associate's degree (for example: AA, AS)." Our category "a Bachelor's or more" includes those marking the ACS options: "Bachelor's degree (for example: BA, BS)"; "Master's degree (for example: MA, MS, MEng, MEd, MSW, MBA)"; "Professional degree (for example: MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD)"; or "Doctorate degree (for example: PhD, EdD)." Note in 2008 changes were made to some of the response categories and the layout of this question.

Employment

A person is considered employed if he or she is either

  1. “at work”: those who did any work at all during the reference week as a paid employee (worked in his or her own business or profession, worked on his or her own farm, or worked 15 or more hours as an unpaid worker on a family farm or business) or
  2. “with a job but not at work”: had a job but temporarily did not work at that job during the reference week due to illness, bad weather, industrial dispute, vacation or other personal reasons. The reference week is defined as the week preceding the date the questionnaire was completed.

Employment Rate

The employment rate is calculated by dividing the number of persons employed by the number of persons in that population.

** Note that the unemployment rate cannot be calculated using the employment rate:

  • The employment rate is the percentage of all persons who have a job.
  • The unemployment rate is the percentage of persons in the labor force who do not have a job but are actively looking for work. The labor force includes people who have a job, are on layoff, or who actively searched for work in the last four weeks.

Please see http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/faq.cfm#Q6 for more information on unemployment rate calculation and its implications.

Full-Time/Full-Year Employment

A person is considered employed full-time/full-year if he or she worked 35 hours or more per week (full-time) and 50 or more weeks per year (full-year). The reference period is defined as the year preceding the date the questionnaire was completed. Note: this does not signify whether a person is eligible for fringe benefits. The question and response categories regarding weeks worked per year was changed in 2008.

Group Quarters (GQ)

A GQ is a place where people live or stay that is normally owned or managed by an entity or organization providing housing and/or services for the residents. These services may include custodial or medical care as well as other types of assistance, and residency is commonly restricted to those receiving these services. People living in group quarters are usually not related to each other. Group quarters include such places as college residence halls, residential treatment centers, skilled nursing facilities, group homes, military barracks, correctional facilities, and workers' dormitories. See the definitions of institutional GQs and non-institutional GQs for more information. In addition, a description of the types of group quarters included in the 2008 ACS is located on the U.S. Census Bureau's Web site at www.census.gov/acs/www/Downloads/
2008_ACS_GQ_Definitions.pdf
.

Health Insurance Coverage

Is based on the following question: Is this person CURRENTLY covered by any of the following types of health insurance or health coverage plans? Mark "Yes" or "No" for EACH type of coverage in items a – h.

  1. Insurance through a current or former employer or union (of this person or another family member)
  2. Insurance purchased directly from an insurance company (by this person or another family member)
  3. Medicare, for people 65 and older, or people with certain disabilities
  4. Medicaid, Medical Assistance, or any kind of government-assistance plan for those with low incomes or a disability
  5. VA (including those who have ever used or enrolled for VA health care)
  6. TRICARE or other military health care
  7. Indian Health Service
  8. Any other type of health insurance or health coverage plan – Specify (Note: “Other type” were recoded into one of the categories a-g by the Census Bureau)

Hearing Disability

This disability type is based on the question (asked of all ages): Is this person deaf or does he/she have serious difficulty hearing?

Hispanic or Latino Origin

People of Hispanic or Latino origin are those who classify themselves in a specific Hispanic or Latino category in response to the question, "Is this person Spanish/Hispanic/Latino?" Specifically, those of Hispanic or Latino origin are those who are Cuban; Mexican, Mexican American, Chicano; Puerto Rican; or other Spanish/Hispanic/Latino. Origin may be the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any race.

Household Income

Household Income is defined as the total income of a household including: wages, salary, commissions, bonuses, or tips from all jobs; self-employment income (NET income after business expenses) from own non-farm or farm businesses, including proprietorships and partnerships; interest, dividends, net rental income, royalty income, or income from real estates and trusts; Social Security or Railroad Retirement; Supplemental Security Income; any public assistance or welfare payments from the state or local welfare office; retirement, survivor or disability pensions; and any other regularly received income (e.g., Veterans' payments, unemployment compensation, child support or alimony). Median household income is calculated with the household as the unit of analysis, using household weights without adjusting for household size.

Independent Living Disability

This disability type is based on the question (asked of persons ages 15 or older): Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctors office or shopping?

Institutional Group Quarters (GQs)

Includes facilities for people under formally authorized, supervised care or custody at the time of enumeration. Generally, restricted to the institution, under the care or supervision of trained staff, and classified as "patients" or "inmates." Includes: correctional, nursing, and in-patient hospice facilities, psychiatric hospitals, juvenile group homes and residential treatment centers.

Margin of Error (MOE)

Data, such as data from the American Community Survey, is based on a sample, and therefore statistics derived from this data are subject to sampling variability. The margin of error (MOE) is a measure of the degree of sampling variability. In a random sample, the degree of sampling variation is determined by the underlying variability of the phenomena being estimated (e.g., income) and the size of the sample (i.e., the number of survey participants used to calculate the statistic). The smaller the margin of error, the lower the sampling variability and the more "precise" the estimate. A margin of error is the difference between an estimate and its upper or lower confidence bounds. Confidence bounds are calculated by adding the MOE to the estimate (upper bound) and subtracting the MOE from the estimate (lower bound). All margins of error in this report are based on a 90 percent confidence level. This means that there is a 90% certainty that the actual value lies somewhere between the upper and lower confidence bounds.

Non-Institutional Group Quarters (GQs)

Includes facilities that are not classified as institutional group quarters; such as college/university housing, group homes intended for adults, residential treatment facilities for adults, workers' group living quarters and Job Corps centers and religious group quarters.

Not Working but Actively Looking for Work

A person is defined as not working but actively looking for work if he or she reports not being employed, but has been looking for work during the last four weeks.

Number

This term appears in the tables; it refers to estimated number of people in the category. (for percentages, this is the numerator).

Poverty

The poverty measure is computed based upon the standards defined in Directive 14 from the Office of Management and Budget. These standards use poverty thresholds created in 1982 and index these thresholds to 2008 dollars using poverty factors based upon the Consumer Price Index. They use the family as the income sharing unit and family income is the sum of total income from each family member living in the household. The poverty threshold depends upon the size of the family; the age of the householder; and the number of related children under the age of 18.

Race

Race categories are based on the question, "[w]hat is this person's race? Mark (X) one or more races to indicate what this person considers himself/herself to be." Responses include the following: White; Black or African-American; American Indian or Alaska Native (print name of enrolled or principal tribe); Asian Indian; Chinese; Filipino; Japanese; Korean; Vietnamese; Other Asian (Print Race); Native Hawaiian; Guamanian or Chamarro; Samoan; Other Pacific Islander (Print Race Below); Some other race (print race below). "Other race" also contains people who report more than one race.

Sample Size

The number of survey participants used to calculate the statistic.

Self-care Disability

This disability type is based on the question (asked of persons ages 5 or older): 17c. Does this person have difficulty dressing or bathing?

Supplemental Security Income (SSI)

A person is defined as receiving SSI payments if he or she reports receiving (SSI) income in the 12 months prior to the survey.

Note: The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) does not apply to Puerto Rico. SSI is a federal cash assistance program that provides monthly payments to low-income aged, blind, or disabled persons in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

Veteran Service-Connected Disability

A disease or injury determined to have occurred in or to have been aggravated by military service. A disability is evaluated according to the VA Schedule for Rating Disabilities in Title 38, CFR, and Part 4. Extent of disability is expressed as a percentage from 0% (for conditions that exist but are not disabling to a compensable degree) to 100%, in increments of 10%. This information was determined by the following two part question:

  1. Does this person have a VA service-connected disability rating?
    Yes (such as 0%, 10%, 20%, ... , 100%)
    No SKIP to question 28a
  2. What is this person’s service-connected disability rating?”
    Responses included: 0 percent; 10 or 20 percent; 30 or 40 percent; 50 or 60 percent; 70 percent or higher

Visual Disability

This disability type is based on the question:(asked of all ages): Is this person blind or does he/she have serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses?

About the Disability Status Reports

The Cornell University Disability Status Reports is produced and funded by the Yang Tan Institute at the Cornell University ILR School. This effort originated as a product of the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Demographics and Statistics (StatsRRTC) funded to the Yang Tan Institute in the ILR School at Cornell University by the U.S. Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (grant No. H133B031111).

The contents of this report do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government (Edgar, 75.620 (b)).

 

Contact Us

K. Lisa Yang and Hock E. Tan
Institute on Employment and Disability
Cornell University
Ithaca, New York 14853
Phone: 607.255.7727
Email: disabilitystatistics@cornell.edu
Web: www.disabilitystatistics.org